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PELLET FEED- FOR BETTER EFFICIENCY

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PELLET FEED- FOR BETTER EFFICIENCY

On September 27, 2014, Posted by , In Blog posts, With 4 Comments

By: Dr. Anand Burra, General Manager – Amo Farm Sieberer Hatchery Ltd.

Poultry industry, throughout the world is propelled by feed manufacturers and large companies concentrating on procurement, formulation, research & development, marketing or integrated production.
In Nigeria about 60%of the total feed is produced by farmers and 40% by companies.
There is a great deal of up-gradation in broiler formulations. Costly and unconventional ingredients like fats and vegetable oils are being used. Sale of commercial broiler feed has been going up every year. Huge investments and heavy infrastructure required for pelleting and extrusion is not available for individual poultry farmers.The feed processing technology has been developing tremendously in Nigeria, to make the feed more efficient due to its economic importance in poultry feeding.
The integrated companies like AMO BYNG NIG LTD, who have huge technical and admin work force have established production facilities for feed processing under advanced technology.

IMPORTANCE OF CRUMBLE AND PELLETED FEED.

About 75% of the input cost in poultry is through feed. Hence maximum attention should be given to the quality of feed for better efficiency.
Application of new technology and good management practices are changing the many parameters of the poultry activity. The body weights and feed conversion ratio (FCR) have been travelling in opposite direction.
The FCR has been reducing gradually from 2.5 in 1980 to 1.6 as of now and scientists are aiming for 1.1 in very near future. And the body weights have been increasing gradually from 1.8Kg in 1980 to 2.6Kg in 6 weeks as of now.
To achieve all these parameters, the feed mills are modernized to produce high tech processed feeds. It is now possible to measure quality of feed in every batch produced and is traceable.
Pelleted feed and Crumbles are now being marketed in Nigeria not only for broilers but also for layers.
Basically the poultry are grain eaters and their intake depends on the method of presentation. Feed which has been ground too fine can greatly reduce the feed consumption and important micronutrients like vitamins and minerals may not reach the bird. Crumble feed helps in growth and development of digestive system in layer pullets and broilers.

TYPES OF FEEDS.

1. MASH FEED: The usual form of poultry ration resulting from mixing and grinding poultry feed ingredients is known as MASH.
mash
2. PELLET FEED: The mash form of feed can be processed further in the form of PELLETS through pelleting process.
The pelleting process is defined as the agglomeration of small particles into large particles by means of mechanical process in combination with moisture, heat and pressure. The temperature of steam cooked feed mixture having moisture content of about 15% increase to 80 to 90 degree centigrade within 20 seconds. Subsequent compression and extrusion through holes in a ring die, friction further increase the feed temperature to 92 degree centigrade. Pellets discharged onto a screen belt of horizontal tunnel drier or into vertical screened hoper are air cooled within 10 minutes to slightly above ambient temperature and dried below 12% moisture. Pellets can be made of various diameter and lengths.
pellet_feed
3. CRUMBLE FEED: When pellets are run through special cracking rolls, a type of product midway between MASH and PELLETS results. This is called CRUMBLE. It has most of the advantages of pellets. Because of smaller size crumbles are generally fed to younger chicks. It is the choice of method of feeding broilers. Crumbs are very easy to handle and convenient to use.

crumble

In Nigeria, 95% of the broiler and 98% of layer pullets feeds are fed in mash form. There is a mismatch of demand and supply of raw materials. So it is pertinent for us to make their uses more effectively by adopting the world proven pelleting process for broiler feed production to improve the bird performance and produce more number of broilers from the same available feed ingredient resources. It is well documented that the pelleting results in improvement in FCR up to 10%. Even in small increase in FCR can increase economic returns. Under high environmental temperatures, the effect of pelleting was more marked. The heat processing reduces pathogens and makes starches more digestible.
It is very easy to attain the standard body weights in layer pullets, with the usage of crumbles. The pullets should be fed with at least 1 kg of crumbles in their initial stage of life.

AGE OF CHICKEN AND TYPE OF FEED TO BE USED.

BROILERS:
a) 0 to 10 days : Broiler starter Crumble
b) 11 to 25 days : Broiler grower Crumble
c) 25 to harvesting : Broiler finisher pellets
LAYERS:
a) 0 to 6 weeks : Layer Chick Crumble.
b) 7 to 14 weeks : Layer grower Crumbles.

EFFECTS OF PELLETED FEED ON GUT MICROFLORA

It is well established fact that the steam conditioning and pelleting reduces total bacterial count and entero-bacteria count. Pelleting also reduces salmonella organism significantly because destruction of salmonella bacteria starts at 65 degree centigrade onwards. The plelleting process also reduces the Clostridia bacteria. The feeding of pelleted diet significantly lower the pH in all segments of the small intestine and makes the intestinal environment unfavourable for bacteria.

MAIN PURPOSE OF FEED PROCESSING

1) To alter particle size.
2) To change moisture content.
3) To change the density of feed
4) To change the acceptability (Palatability).
5) To change the nutrient content.
6) To change the nutrient availability.
7) To detoxify or remove undesirable factors.

8) To improve keeping quality.
9) To reduce storage and transportation space and loss.
10) To improve mechanisation.
11) To lessen moulds, salmonella and other harmful substances in feed.

ADVANTAGES OF PELLET/CRUMBLE FEED

1. Pelleting results in a saving of 15-20% of total feed cost.
2. Feed wastage is reduces.
3. Drinking water remains clean in troughs.
4. There is no wet feed to mould and to attract flies.
5. It is easier for a bird to eat a crumble or pellet than to eat mash.
6. Pelleted feed has a higher nutrient density.
7. Pelleting reduces bulkiness of feed by 15 to 18%.
8. It reduces selective eating by birds.
9. It reduces toxic organisms like salmonella, E coli, etc. during processing.
10. Moulds are not formed in pelleted feeds.
11. Certain growth inhibitors like Trypsin inhibitors, gossypol etc are destroyed during pelleting process.
12. Metabolizable energy value of some of the feedstuffs is improved due to dextrinization of starch.
13. Availability of Vit.E and B12 is increased.
14. Digestibility of certain nutrients is increased
15. Birds need less time to consume the feed.
16. Feeding of pelletd diets resulted in significantly lower pH in all segments of the small intestines. Which decreases microbial load in the GIT.
17. In summers, helps to reduce problem of under feeding.
18. Mixing difficulties, wrong particle size and ingredient separation have been overcome by pelleting process.
EFFECT OF FEED PELLETING ON VITAMIN LOSSES
Generally it is thought that most of the vitamins are lost during feed pelleting process. It is the most frequently asked question by farmers. It is true, vitamins generally sensitive to various physical and chemical factors.
The process of pelleting usually less affects modern forms of vitamins, because they are specially developed for use in animal feeds. A common principle behind the formulation of these current products is the protection of a sensitive vitamins chemically with an antioxidant and physically with a protective gelatine-based matrix coating.
Nevertheless supplementation overages are considered while preparing the pelleted feeds by the manufacturers.

FIELD RESULTS – FROM OYO STATE

BROILER PERFORMANCE RESULTS – MASHFEED VS CRUMBLE FEED

PARAMETER CRUMBS/PELLETFEED MASHFEED
(10BATCHESAVERAGE) (12BATCHESAVERAGE)
Ageatslaughter 36.3days 42.9days
Body weight(Kg) 1.883 1.869
Mortality% 3.6 6.8
FCR 1.688 1.884
TotalFeed/bird(Kg) 3.178 3.521

EECONOMICS FOR 10,000 BIRDS WITH THE ABOVE RESULTS

Per bird Per10,000birds Value(Naira)
Lessfeedby343gm/bird 3430Kg@N100/kg 343,000
Mortalitydiffernec-320birds 602Kg@N400/kg 240,800
Bodyweightdifference 140Kg@N400/kg 56,000
TOTAL(Percycle) 639,800
6.5Cyclesinayear 4,158,700

PULLET PERFORMANCE RESULTS- MASHFEED VS CRUMBLE FEED

BATCH/FEED 5 WEEKS 14WEEKS UNIFORMITY 14WKS.MORT.
BodyWt(Gms) BodWt(Gms) % %
1-MASH 279 1069 78.9 5.36
2-MASH 302 1081 77.1 5.02
3-MASH 288 1110 80.8 4.81
AVERAGE-Mash 289 1087 78.93 5.06
1-CRUMBLE 358 1213 93.2 3.25
2-CRUMBLE 371 1209 91.8 2.97
AVERAGE-Crumbs 365 1211 92.5 3.11

 CONCLUSION:
Feeding mash feed to broilers is not efficient. Feed is too expensive to waste. We have to utilise advanced processing technology for better performance. Generally birds fed on pellet form of feed are ready 5-7 days earlier than the birds fed on mash form of feed.
Good quality feed will never make up for poor management, but poor quality feed will make poor management worst.
( Courtesy: Amo Farm Sieberer Hatchery Ltd “Pulletin”)

4 Comments so far:

  1. please how can I get the right formula for chicken feeds

  2. ADEWALE SHAMSUDEEN ADEKUNLE says:

    With few of information pass across among the types of feed which one will last longer in terms of preservation

  3. ADEWALE SHAMSUDEEN ADEKUNLE says:

    Moreover what the merits of pellets feed over mash feed.

  4. ADEWALE SHAMSUDEEN ADEKUNLE says:

    Moreover what are the merits of pellets feed over mash feed.

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